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The north Carolina tymphoroj 




Teachers Handbook 




* 19971998 wawn * 



The North Carolina Symphony 

Teachers Handbook 

1997-1998 

Table of Contents 

Preface ii 

Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 
Movement I: Allegro con brio 
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) 

Classroom Activities by Leslie Hanna and Daniel Hester 1 

Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) 

Classroom Activities by Phillip Merritt 14 

"Putnam's Camp" 

from Three Places in New England 

Charles Ives (1874-1954) 

Classroom Activities by Susan Trivette 29 

Ordering Information 50 

Scott Joplin Bibliography and Discography 51 

Questionnaire 52 



The North Carolina Symphony Teachers Handbook © 1 997 by the North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. 
Reproduction of this book in its entirety is strictly forbidden. Permission is given to duplicate charts, diagrams, 
scores, puzzles, etc. for classroom use only. 

North Carolina Symphony education concerts are made possible by a grant-in-aid from the State of North Carolina. 
Our thanks to the Edgar Foster Daniels Foundation its their grant to underwrite the cost of education materials. 
As part of their commitment to education, Glaxo Wellcome, Inc. has made a generous grant to fund conductors for 

music education concerts. 
We thank the AT&T Foundation for a grant as part of its emphasis on education. 



The North Carolina Symphony 

2 East South Street 

Raleigh, NC 27601 

(919)733-2750 



Jackson Parkhurst 
Assistant Conductor and Director of Education 



Preface 

We have what we hope will be an exciting program of music this season for both teachers 
and students It has been seventeen years since we performed Beethoven's Fifth Symphony on 
education concerts, and we hope you will enjoy introducing this musical landmark to your 
students The Brahms Academic Festival Overture is probably the composer's most playful and 
accessible composition. Even though Ives's "Putnam's Camp" was begun over eighty years ago, 
it is still very up-to-date in its style and language. 

In addition to our customary core program of works by three composers, this season we 
have added a fourth composer, Scott Joplin. Joplin was a true genius and one of America's 
greatest composers. Over the course of the season we will play a number of his rags from "The 
Red Back Book," the nickname for the legendary, early twentieth-century collection of 
orchestrated ragtime with the formal title, Fifteen Standard High Class Rags. These are the 
arrangements edited by Gunther Schuller and made famous by the New England Conservatory 
Ensemble during the Joplin rediscovery and revival in the early seventies. Although Joplin' s rags 
were originally written for piano, they were played by many different combinations of instruments. 
These orchestrations are the essence of what Joplin himself would have crafted. A biography of 
Scott Joplin is included in the student book, but for those teachers who want to devote more time 
to the study of Joplin and his music, a bibliography and discography is included at the end of this 
book 

We hope this year's songs are popular with your students. We are honoring a number of 
requests with the selection of "North Carolina is My Home" and were almost in print when we 
received the unhappy news of the death of Charles Kuralt. It is a fitting tribute to this great North 
Carolinian that thousands of students will learn his words this year. We are indebted to Loonis 
McGlohon for his kind permission to use the song which he composed and for providing us with 
the orchestration. Loonis is a North Carolina treasure and contributes immeasurably to the 
musical life of this state. Our other song, "He's Got the Whole World in His Hands" is an old 
favorite with undeniable charm and appeal. 

We are grateful to the teachers who wrote this year's Teachers Handbook. We believe 
that our education program is stronger for the fact that the teachers who write our lesson plans 
are also ones who are actively involved in preparing students for North Carolina Symphony 
education concerts Thanks again to Melinda Wilkinson for assisting in song selection. 

We want to emphasize that the songs need to be memorized for singing at the concert. 
When students bring their student books, they do not sing. We believe that the songs are an asset 
to the concert program, but if you can not or do not want to sing them at your concert, tell the 
conductor to leave them out. There are some communities in which some of the children know 
the songs and some do not. Please reach a local consensus before concert time. 

The information in this book is meant to be helpful and an aid to your good teaching. We 
do not require that all or any of it be used. Since conditions differ from one community to 
another, you may find that there is more material here than you can use. We would rather give 
you too much than too little 

We are grateful to you for your hard work and enthusiasm in the wonderful calling of 
music I am personally grateful for you for your good will and support. All the best. 

Jackson Parkhurst July 1997 



mmu Carolina symphony mrm education proorass 



Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 Classroom Activities 

Movement I: Allegro con brio Leslie Hanna and Daniel Hester 

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) 



The Who, What and Why of Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born in Bonn, Germany, 1770 Died in Vienna, Austria, 1827 

Childhood 

• Beethoven had two younger brothers and a sister. He had to take care of them at age 

seventeen when his mother died. 

• Beethoven received his first piano lessons from his father at a very young age. His father 

wanted to make money off of his talent, and he would wake young Beethoven up in the 
middle of the night to practice or to perform for his friends from a local bar. 

• Beethoven became a court organist at age twelve, and earned money for his family from the 

music he was publishing. 

• Many wealthy people were impressed by Beethoven's talent, so they sent him to Vienna to 

study. One of his teachers was Haydn, and even Mozart complimented his 
musicianship by telling people that someday he would "give the world something to 
talk about." 

Musical Style 

• Beethoven's music stretches the limits of the Classical period, and bridges the gap to the 

Romantic period in music history. His music, more than any other before him, reveals 
his dynamic personality. 

• Beethoven's music is divided into three style periods. 

• The first style period, which goes to about 1 802, includes pieces that are in the musical 

language of the time, showing his dependence on the Classical form. Included in 
this period are the first two symphonies. 

• The second style period runs to 1816, and includes music which shows Beethoven's 

intense independence. Symphonies three through eight, as well as the piano 
sonatas through Opus 90 fall into this style. 

• The final style period shows Beethoven's reflective and introspective side as he works 

to stretch the possibilities of thematic variation. This style period includes the 
ninth symphony and the last five piano sonatas. 



Accomplishments 

• Though he received no formal education after elementary school, Beethoven obtained a high 

level of literacy by reading on his own. 

• In his early years, Beethoven was not only a court organist and composer, but also a piano 

teacher. 

• Beethoven began having problems with his hearing around age 30, and soon found out that 

he would eventually face total deafness. Showing his incredible strength of character, 
Beethoven did not give up. He resolved to continue composing despite his impending 
disability. "I will struggle with fate," Beethoven emphasized, "it will not drag me 
down." 

• Beethoven's Works: 

9 symphonies 1 1 overtures 5 piano concertos 

a violin concerto 16 string quartets incidental music for plays 

an oratorio 10 violin sonatas an opera 

2 masses 5 violoncello sonatas arias and songs 

30 large piano sonatas and many sets of piano variations and numerous lesser 

compositions 

• The music of Ludwig van Beethoven is timeless and has inspired people through the ages. 

The final movement of his Ninth Symphony (the setting of Schiller's poem "Ode to 
Joy") was played during the Chinese student protest in 1989 and when the Berlin Wall 
fell in 1990. 

Potpourri 

• Beethoven was a composer, not a cook, and he often ate out. His restaurant etiquette was not 

exemplary - once he dumped a plate of food on a waiter's head and laughed! He was 
also known to write music on his check and leave without paying. His favorite food was 
macaroni and cheese, and he was also partial to red herring. He did like to prepare his own 
coffee with sixty beans per cup. 

• Beethoven did not conform to the fashions of his society. His hair grew wild all over his head 

when everyone else was wearing pigtails. His clothes were typically out of fashion and 
always dirty. His friends had to steal his clothes in the middle of the night to wash 
them. 

• Beethoven was not interested in the approval of others. When people wept at his 

performances he would laugh and call them fools. He was extremely moody and 
insulted everyone. On refusing an invitation to play for a prince, he said, "There are 
and there will be thousands of princes. There is only one Beethoven." 

• Beethoven was not the best tenant. His room was a constant disaster. He wrote music 

everywhere, so one landlord sold the shutters because he had composed on them. On 
any day you were sure to find half-eaten food, dirty laundry, rusty pens, and scribbled 
paper strewn across the room. He would pour pitchers of water over his head to stay 
awake - one can only imagine the mess. Because of these and other unmentionable 
habits, Beethoven was forced to move once or twice a year. 



Classroom Activity 1: Listening Experience With A Call Chart 

Objective: Students will listen to Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, Movement I, and develop an 

understanding of Theme I and Theme II through listening, singing, and following the call chart 

(P-6). 

Listen to Movement I - then Introduce and teach Theme I and Theme II using words and music 
provided. Listen again, using the Call Chart to identify themes. 

Classroom Activity 2: Orff Orchestration For Rhythmic Study 

Objective: Students will understand and experience the rhythmic motive (short, short, short, long) 
for Movement I through listening, singing, performing body percussion, and playing instruments. 
(Note: Students should have listened to Movement I at least one time before you teach this lesson.) 

Teach Beethoven Wrote (p. 8) through the Orff process listed below. 

1 . Echo and pat beat to learn vocal (spoken) part. 

2. Teach body percussion. 

3. Transfer body percussion to appropriate instruments. 

4. Teach Cymbal, Xylophone and Bass Bar parts. 

5. Perform all parts together. 

An additional activity may be done with the Orff Score by forming a double circle (one circle facing 
in and one facing out). Students perform the chant substituting a two hand hit with a partner for the 
clap. At the end of the chant each student steps to the right (on the down beat of the first eighth rest) 
to find a new partner and the chant is then repeated. 

Classroom Activity 3: Writing Experience 

Ludwig van Beethoven was, to say the least, an exceptional individual. He overcame an abusive 
childhood to write some of the world's finest music, only to lose his hearing at age thirty. His 
quote, "I will struggle with fate; it will not drag me down," gives us insight into what he actually 
had to face on a daily basis. Many who came in contact with Beethoven thought that he was 
crazy, and few probably connected with the misunderstood genius. 

This writing experience is designed to let your students imagine that they have a developing 
relationship with Beethoven. The scenario, taken from Barbara Nichol's book, Beethoven Lives 
Upstairs, allows the children to write a letter to a friend explaining the bad and the good of having 
Beethoven for a neighbor. Included is a "starter" letter (p. 11) that your students can fill in or follow 
for an example. You may use Beethoven Lives Upstairs or Lives of the Musicians (listed in the 
bibliography) in addition to the biographical notes listed earlier in this article of Beethoven to 
introduce them to his unusual habits. You will notice that the starter letter includes both negative and 
positive aspects of having Beethoven live upstairs. The children should realize that, although he may 
have been frustrating to live with, it is possible to get to know, appreciate, and befriend someone who 
may be very different. 

Another writing experience option gives your students the opportunity to imagine that they are 
Beethoven, writing their frustrations and triumphs in a journal. Students could focus on writing what 



it is like to be deaf, and how other people react to this disability. Your students will find it interesting 
to explore what it feels like to be very different and misunderstood because of a disability that you 

cannot control. 

Classroom Activity 4: What Makes Music Classical? 

In his Young People 's Concert series, Leonard Bernstein addresses the question that many of our 
students ask: "What is Classical Music?" He explains that when a composer writes a piece of 
"classical" music, he (the composer) "puts down the exact notes that he wants, the exact instruments 
or voices that he wants to play or sing them-even to the exact number of instruments or voices." In 
other words, the composer is very specific, giving as many directions as possible. The composer 
includes how fast or slow the music should be, gives information about dynamic levels and many 
other instructions that will help the performers create the exact performance that he imagined. It is 
the job of the performer to figure out exactly what the composer meant by the many pages of notes 
and directions. This can be both exciting and challenging for the performer, since he is working to 
be as true to the composer as possible. 

This activity is designed to give your students the chance to interpret the first four notes of 
Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 as a conductor would when he/she begins to analyze the score for 
performance. Using the Beethoven Wrote score for OrfT instruments, allow your children to 
experiment with the first eight notes of the song. Familiarity with these opening notes will be helpful, 
so you may want to introduce this after students have worked on Beethoven Wrote. 

Try as many different interpretations as you can. The following is a list of ideas to try: 

1 . Play the notes with no accent or dynamic change. 

2. Accent the first note strongly. 

3. Accent the second note strongly. 

4. Accent the third note strongly. 

5. Change the tempo: play it faster, and slow it down. 

You and your students will have fun deciding how true these examples are to Beethoven's 
imagination and directions. The possibilities are endless! 

This activity works well in a paired or small group setting, allowing the children to work together to 
interpret the music. The amount of guidance that you give the children will depend on their age and 
maturity level. Here are some ideas: 

1 . Teacher leads students step by step through interpretations. 

2. Teacher introduces the idea of interpretation, leads students through one or two 

examples, and allows them to interpret on their own. 

3. Teacher gives examples of interpretations, and allows students to create their 

own interpretations. 



Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Opus 67 

Beethoven worked on several compositions at the same time. He began writing the Fifth Symphony 
in 1805, and then laid it aside to write the Fourth Symphony. He completed the Fifth Symphony 
toward the end of 1807 or beginning of 1808. The piece was first performed in Vienna on a program 
of Beethoven's music, which also included Symphony No. 6 and the Choral Fantasy . 

When the Philharmonic Society of London performed Symphony No. 5 for the first time, the players 
laughed heartily and the conductor laid it aside as "rubbish." A few years later, the same conductor 
admitted to the orchestra, "Gentlemen, some years ago I called this symphony rubbish; I wish to 
retract every word I then said, as I now consider it one of the greatest compositions I have ever 
heard." 

To many, Symphony No. 5 represents Beethoven's struggle and triumph to achieve success despite 
his deafness. The opening four note "fate" motive in C-minor, which echoes through the whole piece 
(either rhythmically or melodically), is overcome in the finale movement by the C-major tonality. For 
the finale, Beethoven added piccolo, contrabassoon, and three trombones, none of which had been 
used in a symphony orchestra before. 

The first movement of the symphony conforms to the general structure of Classical sonata form. The 
call chart which follows will guide the listener through the exposition, development, recapitulation 
and coda of the first movement. You may relate this form to what the children are learning in their 
creative writing classes: 



Your Writing 



Beethoven's Composition 



Opening paragraph - You must capture 
the attention of your reader. 
State the main idea, give the 
problem, setting, characters... 



Exposition - Beethoven captures the 
attention with the 'fate' motive. This is the 
main idea of the piece. He also introduces a 
second theme which gives variety to the 
song. 



Body - Expand on the main idea, giving 
as much detail as possible. 



Development - Beethoven takes the original 
themes and creates musical detail. He also 
expands on his main ideas. 



Closing paragraph - Find a great way to 
end your story. Restate your original 
theme and add a closing statement. 



Recapitulation - He closes by restating his 
original themes. The coda is like the closing 
sentence - a strong ending for a strong piece. 



CALL CHART 

Beethoven, Symphony No. 5: Movement I 

Measure No. EXPOSITION 

1 - 5 Opens with Theme I (Fate Motive) 

6-17 Theme I on Strings with Clarinet and Bassoon 

18-21 Full Orchestra with Theme I 

22-24 Theme I Repeated 

25 - 3 1 Strings with Theme I 

32-42 Woodwinds, French Horn, and Strings (Develop Theme I) 

43-58 Full Orchestral - leads to end of Theme I bridging to Horn solo 

59-62 French Horn call 

63 - 74 Theme II (Pastorale melody) echoes between Strings and Woodwinds 

75 - 94 Theme II Dialogue (Strings, Woodwinds, and French Horn) 

95 - 124 Closing Section of Exposition using Theme I and eighth notes 
Repeat of Exposition (Same as measures 1-124) 

DEVELOPMENT 

125 - 128 Theme I Played by French Horn and echoed by Strings with a key change 

129 - 142 Strings and Woodwinds rapidly alternate the rhythmic motive 

143 - 152 French Horn enters and changes key 

153-157 Repeat of the theme in different Woodwind instruments and new tonalities 

158 - 176 Full Orchestra with crescendo 

177-179 Bridge 

1 80 - 1 94 Violins play the Horn call twice, starting with half notes 

195 - 239 Dialogue between Woodwinds and Strings 

240 - 252 Bridge to Recapitulation using the rhythmic motive 

RECAPITULATION 

253 - 268 Recapitulation begins with restatement of Theme I 

268 Pathetic Phrase played by Oboe (with great sobs!) 

269 - 287 Theme I continues to be developed 
288-302 Bridge to Theme II 

303 - 346 Horn Call played by Bassoon reintroduces Theme II. Dialogue with Strings and WWs 

347 - 362 Closing Section of Recapitulation 

362 - 369 Arpeggio Avalanche in Woodwinds 

369 - 374 Closing of Recapitulation 

375-395 Coda begins with hints of Theme I 

396 - 407 Coda continues with Horn Call motive (Violas and Cellos) 

407-418 Descending eight notes in Bridge 

419-439 Climbing motion in Strings with hammering Timpani 

440 - 469 Dialogue between Woodwinds and Strings 

469 - 478 Building to the Climax 

478-482 Thunderous entry of Theme I 

483 - 491 The Beginning of the End (almost done!) 

491-502 THE END 





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10 



December 16, 1807 
Dear 



You know you are my very best friend and I have to let someone know what is 
going on in my life. My mother has rented the upstairs of my house to Ludwig 
van Beethoven. I can't stand it much longer. Last night he 



And if that weren't bad enough, this morning he 



Even though Beethoven can be annoying, I am starting to get used to him. I 
was so happy this morning when he asked me to 



Write back soon! 
Your friend, 



11 



Name: 



Luduiig uan Beethouen 




Across 

2 Beethoven was born in this country 

5. After he lost his hearing, Beethoven found 

ways to feel when he played 

7. Beethoven began studying this instrument 

at age 4 

8 We are studying Beethoven's 

Symphony 

9 Beethoven met this composer in Vienna 

10 Beethoven began losing this sense when 
he was around 30 years old 



Down 

1 . Beethoven said, "I will struggle with ; it will not drag 

me down." 

3. Beethoven lived during the War in America 

4. Beethoven left Germany to study music in the Austrian 
city of 

6. Beethoven wrote symphonies 



12 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BOOKS 

Grout, Donald Jay and Palisca, Claude V. A History of Western Music. New York: W. W. 
Norton & Company, 1988. 

Kamien, Roger. The Norton Scores: An Anthology for Listening. Volume I: Machaut to 
Beethoven. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1968. 

Krull, Kathleen. Lives of the Musicians: Good Times, Bad Times. Harcourt Brace & 
Company. 1993. 

Nichol, Barbara. Beethoven Lives Upstairs. Orchard Books, 1994. 

Stolba, K. Marie. The Development of Western Music, A History. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. 
Brown Publishers, 1990. 

Ventura, Piero. Great Composers. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1989. 

CD ROM 

Toriel, Ofer. Beethoven 's 5th: The Multimedia Symphony. Future Vision Multimedia Inc., 1993. 



Leslie M. Hanna teaches music at Greenwood Elementary School (K-5) in Lee County. Mrs. Hanna 
received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Music Education with a major in voice from Campbell 
University. She teaches private voice lessons and is married to Joe Hanna, who works for Covance 
Biotechnical Services in Research Triangle Park. Joe also plays the harp and performs with area 
orchestras. 

Daniel W. Hester teaches music at J. Glenn Edwards Elementary School (K-5) in Lee County. He 
also is organist for Jonesboro United Methodist Church, where he recently guided the installation of 
a 27 rank Holtkamp Pipe Organ. Mr. Hester received his Bachelor of Music Education degree with 
a major in organ from Campbell University and a Master of Music degree from the University of 
North Carolina at Greensboro. 



13 



Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 Classroom Activities 

Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) by Phillip Merritt 

INTRODUCTION 

Brahms described his two contrasting overtures to one of his friends as follows: "One of them 
weeps, the other laughs ." (Ewen 698) 

On composing, Brahms said, "It is not hard to compose, but it is wonderfully hard to let the 
superfluous notes fall under the table." (Machlis 131) 

Known for his caustic wit, he once told a musician fishing for compliments, "Yes, you have talent. 
But very little!" (Machlis 133) 

ABOUT BRAHMS 

Top Ten Facts About Brahms 

1 Never married 

2. Carried pennies and candies in his pockets to give to children 

3 . Loved to read 

4. Loved to walk 

5. Born in poverty, died with plenty of money 

6. Brahms means "brambles" (he could often be "prickly" or hard to get along with) 

7. Hard worker 

8. Wrote "Brahms Lullaby" 

9. He was a perfectionist and would burn compositions he did not like 

10. Was affectionately called "young eagle" by his mentors Robert and Clara Schumann 

Time Line of Brahms's Life 

Event Age 
(May 7) Born in Hamburg, Germany 

Began piano lessons 7 

First solo piano recital 1 5 
Accompanist to violinist Eduard Remeny on concert tour 20 
(met Robert and Clara Schumann who started him on his 
path to fame) 

Court composer to Prince of Detmold 24 

First piano concerto 26 

Variations and a Fugue on a Theme by Handel 28 

Moved to Vienna (directed and composed for choral 29 
groups) 

Mother died, he composed German Requiem 36 

First Symphony 43 

Second Symphony 44 

Tragic Overture 41 

• 1881 Academic Festival Overture 48 



14 





Date 


• 


1833 


• 


1840 


• 


1848 


• 


1853 


• 


1857 


• 


1859 


• 


1861 


• 


1862 


• 


1869 


• 


1876 


• 


1877 


• 


1880 



1883 Third Symphony 50 

1885 Fourth Symphony 52 

1890 Stopped composing 57 

1891 Started composing once again after hearing clarinet 58 
virtuoso Richard Muhlfeld 

1897 (April 3) Died in Vienna, Austria 63 



ABOUT BRAHMS' S MUSIC 

Melody - strong and rugged, lyrical 

Rhythm - dynamic (he used syncopation and cross rhythms) 

Harmony - slightly "old-timey" rather than modern; influenced by his idols (Bach, 

Beethoven, and Mozart); unique and very recognizable ("That sounds like Brahms") 
Tone Color - silver-gray; warmer rather than the brighter sounds of his time; had 

woodwinds and brass play in low register rather than high 
Texture - full and complex; he was a master at weaving melodies together 
Form - liked classical structure of the past, master of symphony and chamber music 

Brahms was heavily influenced by the Classical period (be stable, be clear, be balanced) but he 
was also a Romantic (be restless, exaggerate, experiment). He wrote in almost every form of his 
time, the exceptions being ballet, mass, and opera. 

Here are just a few of his most famous works: 

Orchestra - Symphonies (Nos. 1,2,3, and 4) 
Chamber Group - String quartets 
Piano - Variations on a Theme by Paganini 
Choral Group - German Requiem 

He also wrote over 400 vocal songs primarily about love, nature, and death. His pride for 
Germany appeared throughout his music and he often referred to himself as Decht Deutsch 
(thoroughly German). 



ABOUT THE ACADEMIC FESTIVAL OVERTURE 

Background 

The inscription read "... to the most famous living composer of serious music." This was on the 
diploma for an honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree offered to Brahms in 1879 from the 
University of Breslau. He had received a similar offer two years earlier from Cambridge 
University but he turned it down because he was afraid to cross the English Channel. He did 
accept the honor from Breslau and was happy to send just a thank you note! When a friend told 
him that he was expected to say "thank you" in musical form, he wrote the Academic Festival 
Overture based on four student songs. But the surprises weren't over. Brahms had never gone to 
college, but he had spent a summer with his friend, the violinist Joseph Joachim, in the small 



15 



university town of Gottingen where he participated in the fun at "frat parties." It was there that he 
learned the four songs used in the overture. Though these were student songs, they were 
considered inappropriate music for a ceremony bestowing a university's highest honor, and 
Brahms was severely criticized for this. It is obvious, however, from the skillful way he wove 
these four melodies together into the Academic Festival Overture that Brahms is indeed one of 
Germany's most famous serious composers. 

Top Ten Facts About the Academic Festival Overture 

1 One of Brahms' most popular works 

2. Uses the largest orchestra Brahms used (the usual strings and woodwinds, piccolo, 

contrabassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, three timpani, 
bass drum ; cymbals and triangle) 

3. Is 10 minutes long 

4. Written in the summer of 1880 at the Austrian resort at Ischl 

5. Its companion is the Tragic Overture 

6. Based on four popular German student songs 

7 Brahms was severely criticized for composing the Academic Festival Overture 

8. Written to say "thank you" for a special award 

9. Brahms almost sent a thank you note until a friend told him that he was expected to 

write a composition 

10. Wrote two Academic Festival Overtures but destroyed the second 



OUTLINE OF THE SONATA FORM 

Introduction, opening statement 

Exposition, musical ideas (themes) are introduced 

A theme (dramatic) I tonic or I tonic 

Bridge (modulating passage) 

B theme (lyrical) V dominant or III relative key 

Closing theme 
Development, composer comments on the themes 

It is the emotional center of the piece (fighting forces) 

Two devices used are fragmented melody and rapid key change 
Recapitulation, restates the themes 

A theme 

Modified bridge 

B theme 

Closing theme 
Coda closing statement 

OUTLINE OF THE ACADEMIC FESTIVAL OVERTURE 

Note: Sources vary in their analyses of the form of this composition. Variations include whether 
or not there is an introduction, which theme is the principal theme, and which theme is the 
secondary theme. The following is the author's interpretation. The names of the themes are also 
the author's. For the first theme, "beer mug" has been modified to "milk mug." The table and 



16 



chair references in the "Fox Ride" come from the traditional German freshman initiation ritual 
mentioned below. 

I. Introduction 

A. "milk mug" theme (in C minor) 

B. "foreshadowing" theme (in F minor) 

C. "milk mug" theme (in C minor) 

D. "Stately House" first student song (in C major) 

II. Exposition 

A. "good-bod-y-good" first principal theme (in C major) 

B. "To the Fatherland" second student song, second principal theme (in E major, 

then G major) 

C. "The Fox Ride" third student song, closing theme (in G major) 

III. Development - melodic fragments and rapid key change 

IV. Recapitulation (all in C major) 

A. "milk mug" theme 

B. "good-bod-y-good" theme 

C. first student song 

D. second student song 

E. third student song 

V. Coda 

A. "Gaudeamus Igitur" fourth student song 

THEMES OF THE ACADEMIC FESTIVAL OVERTURE 



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Lesson 1: Learning the Songs 

Learn the words to the student songs before listening to the overture. 

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astride their chairs. 

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Lesson 2: Cultural Diversity 

Leam the German words to "The Stately House." 

English: A house we have builded 

German: Wir hatten gebauet 

Pronunciation : veer hot-ten geh-bow-et 



so stately and strong 
Ein stattliches Haus 
iyn staht-lee-shehs hows 



A fortress and a shelter from storm and strife and wrong :|| 
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(roll the "r's") 



Lesson 3: Cultural Diversity 

Learn the Latin words to "Gaudeamus Igitur" 

English: Come and let's be merry now 

Latin: Gaudeamus igitur 

Pronunciation, gow-day-ah-moose ee-ghee-tour 



while we've life before us 
Juvenes dum sumus 
you-vee-nace doom soo-moose 



After cheerful youth has past After cheerless age at last 

Post jucundam jeventutem Post molestam senectutem 

post you-coon-dahm you-vehn-too-tehm post mo-lehs-tahm seh-neck-too-tehm 

|| : Will the earth close o'er us:|| 

|| : Nos habebit humus :|| 

|| : nos hah-bay-beet hoo-moose :|| 

Lesson 4: To America 

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Lesson 5: Body Percussion Activity for "The Fox Ride" 

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Beats 1-8: Skip to the right 

Beat 9: Hop in place 

Beats 10 - 11: Clap once for each beat 

Beat 12: Hop and turn so that you face out of the circle 

Beats 13 - 14: Clap once for each beat 

Beat 15: Hop in place 

Beat 16: Join hands 

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response to it as if it were a musical conversation. They will notate it. They can sing the pitches 
using solfege syllables or pitch numbers or use bell sets. They will share their completed work 
with the class. 



Lesson 10: Compose Your Own School Song 

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Duckworth, William, and Edward Brown. Theoretical Foundations of Music. Belmont, 
California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1978. 

Geiringer, Karl. Brahms: His Life and Work. London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1948. 

Machlis, Joseph. The Enjoyment of Music: An Introduction to Perceptive Listening. New 
York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1963. 

May, Florence. The Life of Johannes Brahms. London: W. Reeves, 1981. 

Mirsky, Reba Paeff. Brahms. Chicago: Follett Publishing Company, 1966. 

Musgrave, Michael. The Music of Brahms. London: Routledge & Paul Kegan, 1985. 

Rachlin, Ann. Brahms. New York: Barron's, 1993. 



Phillip Merritt teachers music K-5 and band 3-5 at Hunter School in Wake County. He received 
his B.A. degree in music from Campbell University and his Orff Level I Certificate from East 
Carolina University. He is also a jazz pianist active in the Triangle area. He and his wife, Sherri, 
reside in Raleigh with their one-year-old daughter, Molly, and their greyhound, Buddy. 



28 



PUTNAM'S CAMP Classroom Activities 

From Three Places in New England by Susan Trivette 

Charles Edward Ives (1874-1954) 

ABOUT IVES 

Charles Ives composed most of his music from 1896 to 1921, but he was almost unknown until 
the last years of his life. His music was so far ahead of its time that it was "mutated rather than 
composed." It was an anticipation of aleatory. In his compositions, Ives used American folk and 
popular music, such as jazz, military marches, patriotic songs and hymns. Some of his music, 
such as "Some Southpaw Pitching," was written about baseball, one of his favorite sports. At a 
baseball rally in Danbury, he heard two marching bands approach and withdraw, playing different 
music. As they came together there was a horrible clash of tonalities. Ives thought it sounded 
delightful and reproduced that sound again and again in his music. He would attend revival 
services where the singers bellowed heartily off-key. To Ives this represented life; people 
sounded like this and so his music reflects that sound. 

Ives was born in Danbury, Connecticut on October 20, 1874. His music was a constant reflection 
of his childhood in New England. It is a remembrance of life in a simpler time. Some of his 
works include sounds of circus parades and revival meetings that he remembered, yet his music is 
not program music. It has the flavor and color of events rather than a story content. 

Ives's father, George, was a Civil War bandmaster. Ulysses S. Grant told Abraham Lincoln that 
Ives's band was the best band in the Union Army. George taught his son two unconventional 
things: sound is a world of infinite possibilities to be explored; and music is to be most valued 
when it relates to human events. As a young man, Ives complained to his father about an old 
man's off-key singing in church. His father replied, "Look into his face and hear the music of the 
ages. Don't pay too much attention to the sounds. If you do you may miss the music." To 
George Ives, the way music felt was more important than the way it sounded. 

Ives attended Yale University and was a member of the baseball, football and track teams. He 
composed the school song, "The Bells of Yale," which is still sung today. After graduating from 
Yale he entered the insurance business in New York City. In 1909 he founded Ives and Myrick, 
one of the most successful insurance agencies in the country. He started the first school for 
insurance agents and wrote pamphlets for educating new agents. His pamphlet, The Amount to 
Carry and How to Carry It, tells agents how to figure out how much insurance to sell to each 
customer and is still in use today. Ives became a very wealthy businessman who composed at 
night and on weekends, holidays, and vacations. 

Three Place in New England, composed between 1903 and 1914, is a set of tone poems, and 
"Putnam's Camp" is the second movement. It presents a deep love for America, but the first time 
it was performed the audience booed. 

Ives worked in a creative vacuum. There was little interest in his music, yet he continued 
composing. He published some of it at his own expense, and only a few of his compositions 



29 



were performed during his lifetime. The people at that time preferred "pretty music." 
Conductors didn't want to perform his music because it was so difficult to learn. The few 
orchestras that did perform his music performed it poorly. When his music was finally accepted, 
he was in poor health and unable to attend performances. 

His manuscripts, like Beethoven's, were almost unreadable. Some written in pencil were illegible. 
Others had corrections pasted in the scores. Copyists tried to correct his "mistakes," and he once 
told a copyist, "Please don't try to make things nice! All the wrong notes are right. Just copy it 
as I have. I want it that way." 

Ives suffered heart attacks in 1906 and 1918, and the condition of his health was complicated by 
diabetes. He never fully recovered from the second attack and almost completely stopped 
composing. He spent the next thirty-three years reworking, arranging, and copying his 
compositions. Ives died of a stroke in New York City on May 19, 1954. 

INITIAL LISTENING SUGGESTIONS 

Activity 1 

Objectives 6.2, 6.3 

1 For the first formal listening, have the students write down the names of the instruments they 
hear. This will focus their attention on prominent instruments like the trumpet, flute, oboe, 

violins, etc. 

2. For the second listening give them a list of possible scenes in random order. It should include 
things like the arrival of the general, begging for the soldiers not to desert, wandering away from 
the crowd, a Fourth of July picnic, marching, playing games with friends, singing a quiet song, 
taking a nap, two bands playing at one time, waking up from a nap, a walk in the woods and blank 
lines for them to write in any other ideas they have. Ask them to listen to the music and put a 
check mark by the scenes they hear. Tell them to take their time checking the scenes so that 
active listening continues throughout the piece (approx. 6 minutes). Collect the lists. 

3 On another day, pass out new copies of the list. This time as they listen, have them number the 
scenes as they hear them, thereby establishing an order. They may also add scenes. Collect the 
lists For assessment, compare the students' lists 1 and 2. 

4 On another day, pass out several large index cards (or any kind of heavy paper) to each 
student Listen to the music and have the students write a brief description of what he/she hears 
(one scene per card) Play the music again to allow the students to review their scene 
descriptions. 

5. Using hanging pocket charts, large tagboard marked off into sections the same size as the 
students' cards, or available bulletin board space, have students come forward as "Putnam's 
Camp" is played and place their scene cards on the display. If possible, have two or three displays 
available to involve more children and to point out that music means different things to 



30 



different people and that everyone's idea is right and no one's is wrong. 

6. After the cards are displayed, have the students verbally describe what they heard in their 
scene. This may require another listening. 

Assessment: Can the students hear different occurrences in the music? Can they verbally describe 
what they hear? 

Activity 2 

Objectives 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 7.1, 8.2, 9.1 

1. Without any background information, have the students listen and imagine scenes, picture, etc. 

2. Give each student a piece of paper divided into eight sections. As they listen again, have them 
draw what they imagined. Encourage drawings that are abstract as well as concrete. 

3. Although this is not true program music, Ives did have a specific idea behind the composition. 
Tell the story: 

Near Redding Center, Connecticut is a park that serves as a memorial to General Israel Putnam 
and his Revolutionary War soldiers. Stone fireplaces and a cemetery are reminders of the time 
when the soldiers camped here in 1778. The current scene, however, is about one hundred years 
later at a church-sponsored Fourth of July picnic. Everyone is having a good time at the small 
town holiday celebration. There is much hubbub, sweating faces, a parade with its two bands that 
overlap and a deep love for America. 

A child wanders away from all of the excitement. He walks up the hill to the cemetery and 
continues into the woods. Tired from the day's activities, he lies down and falls asleep. While 
asleep, he dreams of the Revolutionary soldiers and the hard life they lived. They are frustrated 
with the fight and are ready to desert. Just then, General Putnam comes over the hill to boost 
their spirits. 

The little boy wakes up and, hearing the celebration down the hill, hurries to rejoin them. He 
joins in the games and listens to the village bands. 

4. Listen to the piece again and try to imagine Ives's story. 

5. Divide the class into groups of 2-3 students. Assign each group one part of the story. Create 
a mural that describes the story with each group responsible for one part. 

Assessment: Can the students respond to the composition by drawing abstractly and/or 
concretely? Can they work individually and cooperatively? Do they relate personally to the 
Fourth of July celebration? Can they transfer knowledge from their social studies to this 
composition? 



31 



Activity 3 

Objectives 6.2. 7.2 

Listening Survey 

A. Circle one answer that best describes what you hear. 

1. Feeling Form Story 

2. Flowing lines Many ideas at once Sections 

3. Funny Marching Romantic 

4. Church Parade T.V. 

B. Circle as many as you hear. 

1. Angry Happy No feeling 

Sleepy Surprised 



Sad 



2. Fast 



Slow 



3. Loud 



Soft 



4. Thick 



Thin 



5. Grows 



Shrinks 



C. Describe in your own words any feelings you had about the music. 

Assessment: Can the students describe verbally what they hear either by choosing from a list or 
writing in paragraph form? 



32 



March 1 



"Putnam's Camp" Themes 



V E g i 



w—^ — w—m m m 



— 0— |l 



^m 



P 



a g 



It is the Fourth of Ju- ly pic - nic. And ev-'xy- one is here to en- joy all 



721 



TV 



r *p i 7 * * *p 



2 



the fun. 



Un 



der shade 



trees 



hJ .MO 



1 



^^ 



P 



£» 



(9- 



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there are ta - bles where 



13 



great cooks are put ting out 



their tas 



I 



E= 




i 



- J t t ^ J - k 



krO 




Oh, look! Chick-en, freshcom, bis-cuits, fill one ta-ble and one ta ble's filled with cook- ies cakes and pies. 

British Grenadiers 

1 



BE 



g 



A - noth - er tune Ives bor rowed was one called The Bri tish Gren a 



5 






j f] , , j^f^ 


A. 

-d- 


■m 


J " 


—I — J— = J — J J J .- 



diers." 



It sound ed like some crisp code with just bits and piec es heard, I 



m 



mi 



% 



0— — -0 



m 



f 



fear. 

13 


But you still 


car 


l hear 


the 




mel 


o dy al though he 


's a 


tered some o 


F 
























































J J 





















^\ 












a 




m 


r 













n 


— 






m 




M 


w 


m 


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■0 


- J 
































its notes. It's the Bri tish Gren a diers' tune that he some - times u - ses when he 



17 



ZZ£ 



quotes. 



33 



March 2 



V (* p- jP 1 



-p- 



o - ' 0- 



~* s>j - 



'- \ ' ■ 



SI 



I 



Lis - ten as a - noth - er band be- gins to play Their mel-o-dies just blend in- 



£ 



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P 



# 



to 



one 



sound. 



The Battle Cry of Freedom 



E 



1 



If 



I 



» » 



#-#■ 



# 9 
Yes, Charles IvesasedU nionsongswhenhe wrote his ma ny works. He liked "The Bat tie Cry of 



$ 



m 







ipi 



e 



-o 







Free dom." You will find in ma ny works "Bat tie Cry" most of ten lurks. He liked The Bat tie Cry of 



J ^p i r r/prp 



m 



Free dom." Al though Gen 'ral Put nam of "Put nam's Camp" fame fought Eng land's strong hold 



13 



&^s 



§5? 



m 



m 



6 







— 




on U. S. lands, In Ives' "Put nam's Camp" re mem brance Civ il War is heard. Hark to The Bat tie Cry of 



17 



1 



Free 



dom." 



Folk Song 



i 



o 



y=& 



. 



p 



m m i 



T± 



Mo-thers and their chil-dren stroll a - round the park, hand in hand 



'..• 
walk - ing 



34 



MUSIC MAP 




,'-j 






d»jT%_. 



YANKEE DOODLE / BATTLE CRY 





MARCH 1 MXKC¥t2 

I ! FANFARE ! ! 




MARCFf 1 



HP 



^a 



BEGIN HERE 



fc& 





! ! FANFARE ! ! 




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MARCH 1 / BRITISH GRENADIERS 




*T^ 



FFF! 




35 



CALL CHART 

Objectives: 6.2, 6.4 

0:00 Introduction - full orchestra, descending pattern 
0:04 Strings set march tempo 

0: 10 March 1 in upper strings accompanied by percussive lower strings 
0:26 Flute fragment - British Grenadiers 

0:48 Trumpet fanfare 

0:5 1 Violins continue March 1 

March 2 - low brass 
1 :03 Trumpet fragment - Battle Cry of Freedom 
1 :06 Trumpet and flute fragment - Yankee Doodle 

1:11 Quieter folksong-like tune in violins, "noodling" clarinet 
1:28 Bugle call in flute 
Decrescendo 

2:2 1 Shimmering "dream" chord in strings and piano 

2:25 PohThythm - string rhythm 

Bugle call in flute 
2:33 "Pleading" oboe 

2:37 PohThythm - piano and drum rhythm, different tempo from strings 
2:40 Trumpet fragment - British Grenadiers 

3:30 Brass fanfare 

3:35 Flute fragment - British Grenadiers 
Rhythmic conflict 

3:58 Brass and string fanfare 

4:2 1 Folksong - like melody in violin, "noodling" in viola 

4:45 March 1 in violin, viola, and horns 

Flute, oboe and clarinet fragment - British Grenadiers 

Trombone counter melody 
5:00 Trumpet fragment - British Grenadiers 

5:15 Buzzing flies 

5:20 Cacophony: March 1 - piano, trumpet, violin 2 

5:58 Final dissonant chord 

Assessment: Can the students follow the call chart so that, if asked at any time during the composition, they can 

identify verbally what they are hearing? 



36 



DRAMATIZATION/IMPROVISATION 

Objectives: 6.4, 8.1, 8.2,9.1 

Label index cards with the following (number indicates duplicate cards). 

(Picnic guests): mothers (3-4), fathers (3-4), children (3), band #1 (3-4), band #2 (3-4), wandering 

child 

Revolutionary soldiers (3-4), Liberty, General Putnam 

On the back of the card put a brief description of their action: 

Mothers - watching small children, getting picnic ready 

Fathers - talking with other fathers 

Children - playing games 

Bands - performing (pantomiming or actually playing non-pitched instruments) 

Wandering child - child wanders away from the group, up the hill to the cemetery, becomes tired, lays 

down to sleep, wakes up and runs back down hill to rejoin friends 

Revolutionary soldiers - impatient, ready to retreat, do not listen to Liberty, when Gen. Putnam 

arrives they change their mind and return to camp 

Gen. Putnam - arrives as soldiers are preparing to retreat, encourages them to continue the fight 

Give the groups about 5 minutes to work out their action. This will involve mostly pantomime. See 
the synopsis of suggested action under the initial listening activities for more details. Perform a "dry 
run" (without music). Make any adjustments or suggestions as necessary. Repeat the dramatization 
with the music. The following times give an indication of what action occurs when: 

:10 Picnic scene with fathers, mothers, children playing and 1 band playing 

:50 Second band begins to play along with first band but in contrasting action or rhythm 

1:11 Bands stop, action calms down 

1:30 One child wanders away from the group to the cemetery 

2:20 Child sits down and falls asleep 

2:25 Liberty pleading with Revolutionary soldiers who have become discouraged 

3:30 General Putnam arrives to convince soldiers to stay 

4:21 Child wakes up and runs back to join friends, picnic scene continues 

4:45 Both bands play 

5:58 Action freezes on last chord 

Assessment: Can the students successfully pantomime their role? Can the students, with prompting, 
perform their pantomime at the appropriate time in the music? 



37 



PERCUSSION SCORE 

Objectives: 2.1,2.2,2.3 

Instruments Used: cymbals (opt), drums, finger cymbals, rhythm sticks, triangles 

This activity will focus on the ability to keep a steady beat regardless of the meter and the ability to listen while 
playing Students will be required to listen for melodic cues, to play sensitively and to watch a conductor (the 
teacher) to begin or end their playing. 

Introduction: Listen to the descending pattern (8 beats) 

Drums: J J J J (12 beats) 

March 1: Drums continue ^ J J J , add triangles (cymbals opt.) O 

Fanfare: Stop and listen (7 beats) 

March land 2: Drums J J J J , triangles (cym.) O 

Yankee Doodle: Stop and listen 

Folk song melody: Finger cymbals and triangles s J J J (32 beats) 

Bugle call in flute: Stop and listen 

Piano entrance: rhythm sticks J J J J (sticks decrescendo and ritardando with music) 

Dream chord: Finger cymbals and triangles (ppp!) 

Dream sequence (after oboe): Drums and rhythm sticks jioin piano and snare drum pattern: 

J V; J \ J J J ^ (10 times) 

Fanfare: Stop and listen 

After fanfare: Rhythm sticks: J J J J (12 measures, approx. 46 beats) 

Second fanfare: Stop and listen 

Folk song melody: Finger cymbals and triangles J- J J J (24 beats) 

March 1 : Drums and rhythm sticks J J J J , triangles (cym.) O 

Buzzing flies: Stop and listen 

March 1: Drums J J J J , triangles (cym.) O 

Final dissonant chord: Add triangle trill (cymbal crash?) 

Assessment: Can the students maintain a steady beat regardless of the meter? Can the students listen for cues 

in the music while playing 7 Can the students play sensitively? Are the students able to watch a conductor for 

cues for beginning and ending 9 



38 



COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUE: POLYRHYTHM 

Objectives: 1.1,2.1,2.2,2.3 

Charles Ives used polyrhythm to describe aurally the approach of two different bands in town Each 
was playing a different melody in a different tempo, both a little off pitch and a little off rhythm They 
were close enough to one another to create a conflict of sound. 

1 . Divide the class into 4 groups. Space the groups as far apart as possible yet within hearing 
distance. 

2. For younger children assign them a tune. For upper elementary, allow them to choose a simple, 
short, well-known song. 

3. Have the group sing the song. Sing again and clap the melodic rhythm On the third repeat have 
them only clap the melodic rhythm. 

4. Give each group a different timbre of instrument (drums, tambourines, woodblocks, maracas, 
etc.). 

5. Practice playing the melodic rhythm of their song. Practice playing at a conventional tempo. 

6. After students are successful playing the rhythm at a conventional tempo, have them vary the 
tempo either faster or slower than normal 

7. Have groups perform individually using conventional tempo. 

8. Choose 2 groups to perform simultaneously. For more of a challenge, or if the 2 songs are too 
complimentary, have one group adjust tempo either faster or slower. 

9. Repeat with the 2 remaining groups. 

10. Listen to "Putnam's Camp," dream sequence section (approximately 2:25 into the piece). 
Polyrhythm with different tempos occurs in the piano/snare drum (faster tempo) versus the string 
section (slower tempo). 

Assessment: Do the students have a repertoire from which to choose a song for the activity? Can 
they clap the melodic rhythm? Are the students able to transfer the melodic rhythm to non-pitched 
percussion? Can the group maintain their melodic rhythm when another group is performing at the 
same time? Can the students identify the polyrhythm in "Putnam's Camp?" 



39 



COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUE: POLYTONALITY 

Charles Ives's father often engaged him in activities to "stretch his ears." He would have him sing 
a tune like "Swanee River" in the key of Eb while he played the accompaniment in the key of C. This 
was an experiment in bitonality but it was not named so at that time. Ives uses this technique again 
to portray the brass bands at a parade, each playing its own piece but close enough to one another 
to create a conflict of sound. 

Instrumental Activity 

Objectives 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 

1 . Teach the students a simple melody on barred instruments. (Ex. - Hot Cross Buns, Mary had a 
Little Lamb, Are You Sleeping?) 

2. Have the students transpose the melody to a different key and perform on barred instruments. 

3. Divide students in two groups. Have each group perform the melody in the original key. Have 
each group perform the melody in the transposed key. Simultaneously, have one group perform in 
the original key and the other group perform in the transposed key. This will give the flavor of 
polytonality but the intervals between the two groups will be constant. A more accurate idea of 
polytonality will be apparent if the tunes are played either at different tempos or at different starting 
times (similar to a round). Tape recording the performance in different keys will allow the students 
a better chance to hear the conflict. 

Assessment: Observe whether students are successful playing a simple melody, transposing that 
melody and maintaining independence of part when playing with a contrasting group. 

Vocal Activity 

Objectives 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 

1 Teach students two of the following partner songs: Sandy Land, Ten Little Indians, This Old 
Man, Skip to My Lou, He's Got the Whole World in His Hands. 

2. After students are comfortable singing the songs, divide them in two groups. Assign each group 
one song. Have each group perform its assigned song for the other group. Perform simultaneously 
as partner songs. Tape record the performance. Save the tape for comparison with the polytonality 

activity. 

3 Discuss how the two songs "fit" together because of similar harmonic structure. 

4. Divide class into 4 groups. Have each group choose a simple, short, well-known song. Practice 
singing the song as a group. 

5. Have each group perform its song for the other groups. 



40 



6. Choose two groups to perform their chosen songs simultaneously. Explain that this is not a 
singing contest to see who can out sing the other group. Tape the performance. 

7. Repeat the singing activity with the two remaining groups. 

8. Listen to the tape to hear the conflict of tonality. 

9. Compare this tape with the previous taping of the partner songs. Discuss the differences in the 
tonality of the partner songs and the polytonality of the student-selected songs. 

Assessment: Did the students successfully sing the partner songs? Did the students maintain vocal 
independence when singing a non-partner song? Can the students compare the tonalities of the 
partner song and the non-partner song performances? 

Listening Activity 

Objective: 6.4 

1. Listen to "Putnam's Camp" where March 1 and March 2 occur simultaneously (approximately 50 
seconds into the piece). These two melodies have similar tonalities. This also occurs when March 
1 returns (4:45) in the violins and horns while the upper woodwinds (flute, oboe, clarinet) play a 
fragment of "The British Grenadiers" in the same tonality. 

2. An example of polytonality can be heard at the one minute mark where the trumpets enter with 
a fragment of "Battle Cry of Freedom." This tonality (Db) is in conflict with the March 1 theme (F) 
that has continued. 

3. Polytonality also occurs during the dream sequence (2:33). The tonality of the plaintive melody 
of the oboe is countered by the tonality of the trumpet fragment of "The British Grenadiers." 

Assessment: Can the students hear the difference in the tonality of March 1/March 2 and the 
polytonality of March 1 /Battle Cry (1 :00) and the oboe and trumpet in the dream sequence (2:33)? 



COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUE: TONE CLUSTERS 

Objectives: 1.1,2.1,2.2,2.3 

As a child, Charles Ives would play drumming exercises on the piano. His father encouraged him to 
play with his fist or the flat of his hand. This would later be called "tone clusters." 

1 . Choose a one-chord song (Row, Row, Row Your Boat; Are You Sleeping; The Farmer in the 
Dell; etc. The British Grenadiers will also work although not a true one-chord song). 

2. Set up Orff instruments in the pentatonic mode of the song. 

3. Have the students echo teacher's rhythms using only one note. This would replicate Charles 



41 



Ives's playing of drumming exercises on the piano. 

4. Have the students sing the one-chord song chosen. 

5 As the students sing the song, have them accompany their singing with a bourdon (tonic and 

dominant notes). This imitates traditional harmonic accompaniment. 

6. Using the pentatonic, have students choose .any two notes to play to accompany the song. 
These accompanying sounds are tone clusters like Ives used in his compositions. (Ives's tone clusters 
were sometimes more dissonant than these!) 

7. Listen to the piano part in "Putnam's Camp." The piano enters midway through March 1 
(approximately 20). Much of the piano part is examples of tone clusters. 

8. An easier heard example of a tone cluster is the "dream" chord (2:21). 

Assessment: Observe the children's success in keeping a steady beat bourdon accompaniment while 
singing Observe if they are also able to keep a beat accompaniment on a pentatonic cluster while 

singing. 



PUTNAM'S CAMP (ORFF STYLE) 

Objectives: 2.2, 2.3, 3.1 

Materials: xylophones, metallophones, glockenspiels, recorders, hand drums, metals (triangles, finger 
cymbals, jingle bells, etc.), woods (sticks, claves, woodblocks), suspended cymbal. 



Introduction: Xylophones and glocks - 

j j j j n n j * 



c c c c c c 

Picnic scene with bands : 

Drums - steady beat 

Metals create a rhythm pattern to be repeated over drumbeat (Band #1) 

Suspended cymbal - metals and drums stop 

Drums - steady beat 

Woods create a rhythm pattern to be repeated over drum beat and metal pattern (Bands #1 and #2) 

Suspended cymbal - metals, woods and drums stop 



42 



Glocks - pentatonic improvisation, gentle contrasting melody to wood/metal rhythm 
Glocks fade away as hear xylophones "walking" low to high 
Glock cluster (any 2 notes) (dream chord) 



Dream sequence : 
Woods - 



its- , til 

J J | J J J 

Drums - begin after woods, same rhythm, different tempo 

Metallophones - pentatonic improvisation over woods and drums (Liberty pleading with the soldiers) 

Fade away 

Drums - steady beat 



Xylophones: J~^J J J~~} J 

c c c c c c 



n n j J 

c c c c c c 



Recorders - British Grenadiers fragment, steady drum beat 



'-.M J J J 'r rj 



m 



To add Ives' flavor, alter notes in recorder melody 
Steady drum beat continues 



Xylophones: JTj J J"~J J 

c c c c c c 



nn J J 



c c c c 



Return to the picnic: 

Drum - steady beat 

Glocks - pentatonic improvisation, gentle contrast 

Drum - steady beat 

Woods and metals rhythm patterns like beginning 

Suspended cymbal 

Assessment: Can the students improvise non-pitched and pitched patterns and melodies? Can they 
create their own version of "Putnam's Camp"? 



43 



INTEGRATING THE CURRICULUM 

LANGUAGE ARTS 

1 For an initial listening activity, have the students listen and write a story based on their 
interpretation without any background. After they share their stories, share Ives's idea. 

2 Individually or as a group, write about a Fourth of July celebration. 

3. For additional insights into hometown America Fourth of July celebrations read Littlejim by Gloria 
Houston (Philomel Books, New York, 1990) for early twentieth century Appalachian celebrations; 
Tlie Best Town in the World by Byrd Baylor (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1982) for early 
twentieth century Texas hill-country celebration; and Hobie Hanson, You 're Weird by Jamie Gilson 
(Lorthrop, Lee & Shepard Books, New York, 1987) for a more modern, yet old-fashioned, Fourth 
of July celebration. 

4. Use a flow chart to enhance students' sequencing skills. 









Playing games, 
eating, bands 
playing 




Child wanders away 
up the hill 






Picnic 
































Child falls asleep 




Soldiers want to 
retreat, Liberty begs 




General Putnam 
arrives 


































Child wakes up 




Child runs back to join 
the picnic 




Picnic scene 





























SOCIAL STUDIES 

1 . Use Steven Kellogg 's Yankee Doodle by Edward Bangs (Parents' Magazine Press, New York, 
1976) or Yankee Doodle by Richard Shackburg (Half Moon Books, New York, 1965) for historical 
perspective of the Revolutionary War. 



2 "Yankee Doodle" Parody: 
Yankee Doodle was a song 
That came from English soldiers. 
They sang and sang it all day long 
To make fun of my friends and yours. 



We like this Yankee Doodle so 

We took it and we sang it. 

But first we changed the words and soon 

It was our own American hit. Chorus 



Chorus. 

Yankee doodle keep it up 
Yankee doodle dandy 
Mind the music and the step 
And with the girls be handy. 



Charles Ives used the melody 

Of Yankee Doodle Dandy 

He only used a bit, you see 

And what he wrote sounds wrong to me! Chorus 



The English sang 'til Lexington. 
They thought they'd teach us a lesson. 
But we outsmarted them and won 
Then drove them back to Boston. Chorus 



Ives enjoyed unusual sounds. 

He altered rhythms and some notes. 

It sometimes sounds as if he pounds 

With fists to disguise what he quotes. Chorus 



44 



CROSSWORD NO.l CLUES 



ACROSS 

4. Tune frequently quoted by Ives 



8. College Ives attended 
13. Charles Ives died at the 



of 79 



14. The first time "Putnam's Camp 1 ' 
was performed, the audience 



1 5. Region of the US were Ives lived 

1 7. Occupation of Ives' father 

22. in New England 

26. Abbreviation for 3 feet 

27. Most of Ives' music was not performed 
until his death 

28. Highest string instrument 

29. Ives' first name 

DOWN 

1 . Ives loved these 

2. Composer of "Putnam's Camp" 

3. Greasy liquid 

4. " Putnam's Camp" was written _ 
by Charles Ives 



5. What you hope it doesn't do at your 

picnic 

6. Speed of the music 

7. Ives' father's name 

10. Tune quoted by ives in "Putnam's 
Camp 

1 1 . To chop or cut 

12. State where Ives was born 

16. What you do when you are asleep 

1 8. Ives wrote his music home 

19. Quiet! 

20. to be good listeners at the 

North Carolina Symphony concert 



21. Do, 



mi 



23. Several notes played at the same time 

24. Group that will perform Ives '"Putnam's 
Camp:" The North Carolina 

25. Piece of music for soldiers to move to 



45 



CROSSWORD NO, 1 




46 



ACROSS 

1 . Second movement of "Three 
Places in New England" 

6. Ives' wife's name, also means a 
pleasing combination of sounds 



CROSSWORD NO. 2 CLUES 

8. Ives loved these 

9. Composer of "Putnam's Camp" 

10. Greasy liquid 



7. Civil War song quoted by Ives 
1 1 . Tune frequently quoted by Ives 

1 5. College Ives attended 

16. More than one rhythm at a time 

20. Charles Ives died at the of 79. 

2 1 . The first time "Putnam's Camp" was 
performed the people . 

22. Region of the US where Ives lived 

24. Occupation of Ives' father 

29. " 

in New England" 

33. Abbreviation for 3 feet 

34. Most of Ives' music was not 
performed until his death. 

35. Highest string instrument 
Yf. Ives' first name 

40. Ives was an composer 

42. Clashing sounds 

DOWN 

1 . Fourth of July activity 

2. More than one tonality or key at a time 

3. Disease Ives had 

4. Fourth of 

5. Revolutionary War general 



1 1 . "Putnam's Camp was written 
Charles Ives 



12. What you hope it doesn't do at your 
picnic 

1 3 . Speed of the music 

14. Ives' father's name 

17. Tune quoted by Ives in "Putnam's 
Camp 

18. To chop or cut 

1 9. State where Ives was born 

23. What you do when you are asleep 

25. Ives wrote his music home 

26. Quiet! 



27. 



to be good listeners at the 



North Carolina Symphony concert 
28. Do,_,mi 

30. Several notes played at the same time 

3 1 . Group that will perform "Putnam's 
Camp" - the North Carolina 



32. Piece of music for soldiers to move to 

36. Ives' occupation other than writing 
music 

38. Town where Putnam's soldiers camped 

39. "Putnam's " 

4 1 . What Ives did in 1918 instead of writing 
new music 



47 




48 













< 


SONGS CHARLES IVES LIKED TO QUOTE 










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t; 


K 


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c 


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N 


T 


T 



AMERICA 

ARKANSAS TRAVELER 

THE BATTLE CRY OF FREEDOM 

THE BATTLE HYMN OF THE REPUBLIC 

THE BRITISH GRENADIERS 

CHARLES 

CIVIL WAR 

COLUMBIA THE GEM OF THE OCEAN 

THE GIRL I LEFT BEHIND ME 

HAIL COLUMBIA 

IVES 

JOHN BROWNS BODY 

LA MARSEILLAISE 

MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA 



49 



MARYLAND MY MARYLAND 

OVER THERE 

THE RED WHITE AND BLUE 

REVEILLE 

REVOLUTIONARY 

SAILORS HORNPIPE 

SEMPER FIDELIS 

SONGS 

THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER 

TURKEY IN THE STRAW 

WAR OF 1812 

WORLD WAR I 

WORLD WAR II 

YANKEE DOODLE 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Boardman, Eunice and Barbara Andress. The Music Book. Grade 5. Holt, Rinehart, and 
Winston, New York, 1981. 

Chase, Gilbert America's Music - From the Pilgrims to the Present. Revised Third Edition, 
University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1992 

Machlis, Joseph (editor). The Enjoyment of Music. Third Edition, WW. Norton and Co., 
New York, 1970. 

Nichols, Janet. American Music Makers. Walker and Company, New York, 1990. 

Schonberg, Harold. Lives of the Great Composers. WW. Norton and Co., New York, 1981 

Pedis, Vivian. Charles Ives Remembered. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1974. 



Susan Trivett currently teaches K-5 music at Granite Quarry Elementary, having taught in the 
Rowan-Salisbury school system for nineteen years. She is also an adjunct instructor in flute at 
Catawba College. In addition to her teaching duties, she is beginning her twenty-second season 
as a flutist with the Salisbury Symphony Orchestra and is organist at First United Church of 
Christ, Salisbury. She received her B. M. degree from the University of North Carolina at 
Greensboro and has received additional certification in Orff - Level III and Kindermusik. 



Ordering Information 

Copies of North Carolina Symphony education publications and compact disks can be ordered 
from the Symphony office. For ordering information, write to: Janice Jordan, The North Carolina 
Symphony, 2 East South Street, Raleigh, NC 27601. Telephone 919/733-2750. Fax 919/733- 
9920. 

Please place orders early enough to allow for two weeks delivery time; materials are available as 
long as supplies last. Orders must be accompanied by a purchase order or check. 



50 



SCOTT JOPLIN 
Bibliography 

Berlin, Edward A. Scott Joplin: A Life in Ragtime. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 

Curtis, Susan. Dancing to A Black Man 's Tune: Scott Joplin and His Era. Columbia, Missouri: 
University of Missouri Press, 1994. 

Gammond, Peter. Scott Joplin and the Ragtime Era. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975. 

Haskins, James. Scott Joplin. New York: Stein and Day, 1978. 

Juvenile Literature: 

Evans, Mark. Scott Joplin and the Ragtime Years. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1976. 

Mitchell, Barbara. Raggin': A Story About Scott Joplin. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 
1987. 

Otfinoski, Steven. Scott Joplin: A Life in Ragtime. New York: F. Watts, 1995. 

Preston, Katherine. Scott Joplin. New York: Chelsea House, 1988. 

Discography 

Instrumental: 

Schuller, Gunther and the New England Conservatory Ensemble. "The Red Back Book" 
EMI Classics. Compact Disk: CDC 47193. Tape: 4XS 36060 

Piano (CDs unless otherwise indicated): 
Blumenthal, Daniel. Pavane 7317. 

Bolcom, William. "Euphonic Sounds." Omega OCD3001. 

Boulware, H. and Joplin, Scott (piano roll). Biograph BCD 101 and BCD 102. 

Hyman, Dick. RCA Gold Seal 7993 -2-RG or tape, 7993 -4-RG 

Joplin, Scott (piano roll). Tape: Biograph-2-BRC 1013. 

Rifkin, Joshua. EMI Classics CDM 64668-2 or tape, EG 64668-4. 
Elektra/Nonesuch 979159-2. 

Smith, J. Preimer PRCD 1028. 



51 



Questionnaire 

The North Carolina Symphony welcomes your criticisms and compliments on our education program. 
Please fill out this page or a copy and return it to the address below. 



Please tell us what you think about 
The Teacher Handbook: 



The student booklet: 



The teacher workshop: 



Your education concert: 



Other: 



Please list suggestions for songs. 



Are you interested in writing for the Teachers Handbook! 
If so, please give your name and telephone number 



*>&— 



Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education 

The North Carolina Symphony 

2 East South Street 

Raleigh, NC 27601 

919/733-2750 
Fax: 919/733-9920 



52